# Module 1

• Fundamental Couse of CS
• Sciece as CS
• Computation speed and related
• FSM : Finite State Machine
• CFL : Context Free Language
• Turing Machine

FSM → CFL → Turing Machine

Language here is a set of Strings

# FSM

• Symbol: a b c 0 1 2 4...
• Alphabet : Denoted by $$\Sigma$$ is a collection of symbols
• Eg : $$\{a,b,c\}\ or \ \{1,2,3\}$$
• String : Sequence of Symbols eg: a,b,c... or aa,bb,cc,...
• Language : Set of Strings
• Eg: $$\Sigma = \{0,1\}$$
• Set of all strings of Length 2: $$\{00,01,10,11,...\}$$
• Set of all strings of length 3: $$\{000,001,010,....\}$$
• Set of all strings that begin with 0: $$\{0,001,010,...\}$$

Third example is an $$\infin$$ set

### Powers of $$\Sigma$$

Let $$\Sigma = \{0,1\}$$

• $$\Sigma^{0}$$ = Set of all strings of length 0: $$\Sigma^{0} = \{\epsilon\}$$ (Epsilon)

$$\epsilon$$ denotes all strings of length 0

• $$\Sigma^{1}=$$ Set of all strings of length 1; $$\Sigma^{1} = \{0,1\}$$
• $$\Sigma^{n}=$$ Set of all strings of length n

### Cardinality

• No of Elements in a set

Cardinality of $$\Sigma^{n}=2^{n}$$

### $$\Sigma^{*}$$

$$\Sigma^{*} = \Sigma^{0}\cup\Sigma^{1}\cup\Sigma^{2}\cup......\Sigma^{n}$$
=> $$\{\epsilon\}\cup\{0,1\}\cup.....$$
=> Set of all possible strinfgs of all length over $$\{0,1\}$$ -> $$\infin$$ set

## Finite Automata ### DFA - Deterministic Finite Automata

• Simplest Model fo Computation
• It has veru limited memory • Circles are States
• Edges/ Arrows are transistions
• Labelling are Inputs
• Double Cirlce is Final State
• Arrow from nowhere is the Initial State

Every DFA can be represented using 5 tuples $$\to (Q,\Sigma,q_{0},F,\delta)$$

• $$Q$$ : Set if al States
• $$\Sigma$$ : Inputes
• $$q_{0}$$: Start state/ Initaial State
• $$F$$ : Set of Final States
• $$\delta$$ : Transisition Function that maps from $$Q \times \Sigma \to Q$$

For the Above DFA, the values are

• $$Q = \{A,B,C,D\}$$
• $$\Sigma = \{0,1\}$$
• $$q_{0}=A$$
• $$F=\{D\}$$
• $$\delta =$$
0 1
A C B
B D A
C A D
D B C

Example Question: Let L1= Set of all strings that stras with 0 = {0,00,01,000,010,011,0000,....}. Design the DFA

Answer: Here C is the Dead State of Trap State

Example Question: Construct a DFA that accepts sets of all strings over {0,1} of length 2.

Answer: $$\Sigma =\{0,1\}$$ and $$L=\{00,01,10,11\}$$ ## RegularLanguage

• a regular language is said to be a regular language $$\iff$$ a finite state machhine recognizes it
• Not Regular
• When requires memory
• Not recognized by FSM

Memory of FSM is very Limited and canno count strings

### Operations on Regular Languages

Union : $$A\cup B=\{x\mid x\in A \ or\ x\in B\}$$
Concatenation: $$A \circ B=\{xy\mid x\in A\ and\ y\in B\}$$
Star: $$A\ast=\{x_1,x_2,x_3\dots x_k\mid k\ge0 \ and \ each\ x_i\in A\}$$

Eg: $$A=\{pq,r\},B=\{t,uv\}$$
Ans:

• $$A\cup B=\{pq,r,t,uv\}$$
• $$A\circ B=\{pqt,pquv,rt,ruv\}$$
• $$A\ast =\{\epsilon,pq,r,pqr,rpq\dots\} = \infin \ set$$

Theorem 1: The class of Reglular Lanugauges is closed under Union($$\cup$$)
Theorem 2: The class of RL is closed under Concatenation($$\circ$$)

## NFA - Non Deterministic Finite Automata

• There could be multiple Next states
• The next state could be chosen at random
• All the next states may be chosen in Parallel ### NFA - Formal Definition

• NFA are defined using
• $$Q$$ : Set if al States
• $$\Sigma$$ : Inputs
• $$q_{0}$$: Start state/ Initaial State
• $$F$$ : Set of Final States
• $$\delta$$ : Transisition Function that maps from $$Q \times \Sigma \to 2^{Q}$$ L={Set of all strings that end with 0}

If there is any way to run the machine that ends in any set of states out of which atleast one state is a final state, then the NFA accepts

For examples, check this video

## Conversion NFA to DFA

Every DFA is an NFA, but not vice-versa. But there is an equivalent DFA for every NFA

Things to keep in mind

• $$\phi$$ in NFA is the Dead State in DFA
• NFA's $$\phi$$ should be replaced by another state in DFA

Example 1: Convert to DFA, L={Set of all strings over(0,1) that starts with 0}

Answer: $$\Sigma=\{0,1\}$$ Transition Table:

0 1
A B $$\phi$$
B B B

While converting this to DFA, we have to account the $$\phi$$ as it should be converted to a dead state. This gives us the Transition Table,

0 1
A B C
B B B
C C C

Which gives us the DFA, where C is the dead state ## Minimization of DFA

• To obtain the minimal version of any DFA which consists of the min number of states possible

• Equivalent states can be combined

• Two states can be equivalent if, $$\delta(A,X) \to F$$ and $$\delta(A,X) \nrightarrow F$$ OR $$\delta(B,X) \to F$$ and $$\delta(B,X) \nrightarrow F$$

Where X is any i/p string

If $$|X| = n$$ the A and B are said to be n equivalent

Refer https://youtu.be/0XaGAkY09Wc for better Idea 😄